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Theses

Retinal imaging : following of structure and cellular activity using static and dynamic Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography

Abstract : This thesis aims to demonstrate the usefulness of static and dynamic Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography (FFOCT) for retinal imaging, with in vitro (cell cultures in 2D or 3D), ex vivo (retinas dissected from different species) and in vivo (direct imaging of the eye of the patient) samples.By stabilising the three dimensional and timelapse dynamic acquisitions, it allows a better following and interpretation of the evolution of in vitro samples, such as retinal organoids (produced from human pluripotent stem cells) or retinal pigment epithelium cell cultures (from pluripotent stem cells and primary porcine cells). The recorded dynamic signals can be differentiated by the cell type (photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium, etc.) or the expressed phenotypes (for example dying cell, cell division, etc.), allowing a totally non invasive imaging in biology. These signals, representing the cellular activity, come from organelles present in the cells, especially mitochondria, and help to an easy interpretation of the condition of the cells.This innovative contrast allows to study retinal degenerative diseases in vitro, such as Age-related Macular Degeneration or Retinitis Pigmentosa. Disease modeling can easily be studied by evaluating the cell response over time, for example after an induced stress on the cell culture (scratch assays). Drug screening for these diseases will also be eased by following the evolution of the dynamic signal produced by the cells after treatment.Finally, the application of Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography to in vivo retinal imaging permit a non invasive study of the different layers of the retina (from the nerves to the retinal pigment epithelium). It is a technique less complex than those with adaptive optics usually used for in vivo imaging. The stabilisation and signal improvement justify the idea of the future in vivo implementation of dynamic FFOCT for the detection of diseases at early stages, such as Age-related Macular Degeneration or Glaucoma.
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Submitted on : Monday, January 31, 2022 - 6:54:14 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-03550063, version 1

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Kassandra Groux. Retinal imaging : following of structure and cellular activity using static and dynamic Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography. Physics [physics]. Université Paris sciences et lettres, 2021. English. ⟨NNT : 2021UPSLS080⟩. ⟨tel-03550063⟩

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