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Des conseillers pour protéger la nature : Analyse socio-historique de la constitution et de l’évolution de l’action publique en matière de protection de la nature

Abstract : Among the main changes in nature protection public policies in France, numerous authors identify the emergence of biodiversity conservation in the 1990s as a real break. The effects induced by the reforms initiated since that decade were interpreted as a technification or a neo-managerialization of former nature protection public policies, as well as the beginning of a more dynamic and integrated approach. Through a long-term analysis, we wanted to reexamine the extent of the changes that have taken place over time in this public policy.Since the 20th century and up to the present day, numerous national and European legislations have created various mechanisms to deal with the problem of nature protection. These instruments are the result of power relationships between different actors that reflect the particular framing of nature protection during different period of time. We wanted to focus on the claims, modalities of action and strategies of one group of actors in particular, that of scientists and naturalists.The creation of the National Council for Nature Protection (Conseil National de la Protection de la Nature) reflects the will of public authorities for protecting the biological dimension of nature. The thesis focuses on the genesis of this consultative body, which was responsible for proposing legislation and implementing national parks and nature reserves.The analysis of its activity and of the actors who carried it out provides new insights into the elaboration of nature protection as a public issue, but also into more recent developments in biodiversity conservation public policy. As a witness to early environmental concerns, this council, composed largely of experts, is a key institution for understanding the growing role of scientific knowledge in nature protection public policy.The analysis of the emergence and consolidation of this institution is fundamental to grasp over time the conditions of elaboration and implementation of the "nature reserve" system in France. The study of the council's activity allowed us to follow the evolution of the rationales underlying the protection of fauna, flora and their habitats.The combined analysis of the evolution of knowledge and ideas, of the institutional landscape, and of the instruments deployed to protect nature allows us to contribute to the debates on the place of expertise in public action; it sheds new light on the reality of the changes brought by the concept of biodiversity.By mobilizing the concepts of ecology and the methodological tools of the sociology of public issues and the study of science and technology, the thesis mobilizes an interdisciplinary approach that makes it possible to identify, during time, the diversity of approaches concerning nature protection and the different resources available to the actors to impose and implement their vision of what should be the nature protection public policy.
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  • HAL Id : tel-03556839, version 2

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Pierre Chassé. Des conseillers pour protéger la nature : Analyse socio-historique de la constitution et de l’évolution de l’action publique en matière de protection de la nature. Science politique. Université Paris-Saclay, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021UPASB071⟩. ⟨tel-03556839v2⟩

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