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Étude de choix constructifs pour garantir la mise en œuvre et la durabilité des enrobés neufs et recyclés à l’émulsion de bitume

Abstract : The use of bitumen emulsion cold mixes, coupled with the reuse of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), is part of an effective approach to preserve the environment. Such materials are intended for low to medium traffic-loading pavements and can represent significant potential for the secondary network in African countries, such as Côte d'Ivoire, where road traffic is low. Their formulation requires to ensure the compatibility of the emulsion with virgin aggregates and RAP according to their respective physicochemical characteristics.Surfactants determine emulsion-substrate interaction in terms of emulsion breaking, wetting and adhesion of binder onto substrate. The final mechanical performances of virgin and recycled asphalt mixtures are linked to these processes, which take place from the manufacturing to the in situ curing stages.The objective of this thesis was to study the phenomena occurring at the emulsion-substrate interfaces in order to understand the formulation of the emulsion and its impact on the implementation and durability properties of virgin and recycled asphalt mixes.The research work was carried out at two levels. The first level concerned studies at the microscopic scale on emulsion-substrate interactions, relative to the phenomena of surfactant adsorption, emulsion breaking process, behavior of emulsion-filler mixtures and emulsion wetting on model substrates. The second level concerned studies at the macroscopic scale through the emulsion-aggregate adhesivity tests, the formulation of virgin and recycled mixtures and the evaluation of their cohesion build-up and their water resistance.On a microscopic scale, the surfactant adsorption differed according to the surfactant-substrate pair considered; the emulsion breaking on the aggregate was all the more rapid as the SiO2 content increased. At the rheological level, the behavior of the emulsion-filler mixtures was influenced by the surfactant nature and content, the specific surface area of the aggregates and the emulsion-filler mass ratio. RAP exhibited higher contact angles and lower adhesion work with the emulsion than the virgin aggregates. This suggests that in a recycling context, the emulsion will preferentially wet virgin aggregates.On a macroscopic scale, formulation tests revealed a variation in the total water content of the mixtures depending on the surfactant nature and content. The cohesion build-up and water resistance tests, carried out on virgin and recycled asphalt mixes, indicated optimum values of surfactant content depending on the nature of virgin aggregates with respect to these properties. A relationship was found between short-term cohesion and water resistance.Finally, a comparison of the results at both scales leads to correlations between them, which specify the mechanisms involved in the surfactant adsorption on the substrates and clarify the contribution of the aged binder in the mechanical performances of recycled asphalt mixes thanks to the surfactant effect.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, February 22, 2022 - 10:12:25 AM
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Yacouba Konate. Étude de choix constructifs pour garantir la mise en œuvre et la durabilité des enrobés neufs et recyclés à l’émulsion de bitume. Génie civil. École des Ponts ParisTech; Institut National Polytechnique Félix Houphouët-Boigny (Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire), 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021ENPC0027⟩. ⟨tel-03583916⟩



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