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Theses

Evaluation du programme d'amélioration des sols dégradés de la Précordillère Andine de l'Araucanie (Sud du Chili)

Abstract : This thesis demonstrates that, throughout history, since the Spanish Conquest until the 21st Century, agriculture has been an important activity of the mapuche people. Research conducted points out the ability of the mapuche to resist and battle against powerful and ferocious foes, and in addition, their intelligent adaptation to foreign invasions, including that of the State of Chile. The thesis demonstrates the changes that took place in agriculture, and the ability of the mapuche people to innovate, since the Inca invasion in the 15th century, the Spanish conquest through the 16 to 19th centuries, and the Chilean occupation that extends reaching the 21st century. At the start of the Spanish conquest, mapuches constituted people that autonomously occupied a territory, were fully sedentary, communities populated clearly delimited areas, and conducted agriculture of cultural subsistence, in addition to harvesting native vegetation, fishing and hunting. Society was matricially organized by lineages, by groups, had a cosmic view, culture and social organization. During the Colony, they adopt and appropriate European technology, develop a powerful animal husbandry that extends through the Argentinian pampa; this activity generates a strong and diversified commercial exchange between the mapuche territory and the Kingdom of Chile, of animal products, handicrafts and food products. Exchange was unfavorable for the mapuche and had to be regulated through parliaments. The Chilean Republic at first recognized the mapuche territories, but later, for reasons of economic expansion, occupies them through war. Mapuches resist and are defeated by the Chilean army that had recently won the Pacific Ocean War against Peru and Bolivia. The mapuche enter the 20th century deprived of 95% of their territory, almost the total of their powerful animal husbandry, their capital goods, machinery, equipment, annual and perennial crops. But above all, they are excluded, segregated, faced with assimilation and extermination strategies, they die from hunger, diseases and pests. The real historical debt of the State of Chile with the mapuche generates at that point. Agrarian reforms, in particular that of the Popular Unity (1970-73) political government faces the problem of usurped lands and initiates solutions, later reversed by the Military Government (1973-90). Concertation for Democracy governments (1990-2010), recognize the specificities of the mapuche people and partially solves land conflicts. At present, rural mapuche face powerful strategies of assimilation and cultural extermination; however, at the rural communities level, the ability of the mapuche people to adapt to changes, adequate, resist, and impose the basic terms of the conditions necessary to reconstruct themselves as a Chilean original people has become clearly evident.
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  • HAL Id : tel-03602119, version 1

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Marcelo Jose Nobile Toneatti Bastidas. Evaluation du programme d'amélioration des sols dégradés de la Précordillère Andine de l'Araucanie (Sud du Chili). Agronomie. AgroParisTech, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011AGPT0029⟩. ⟨tel-03602119⟩

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