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Gestion durable de la variabilité génétique des ruminants domestiques : approches in situ et ex situ

Abstract : In France, the preservation and the management of the genetic variability of ruminants' breeds is an important field of research and activity. The French experience combines effective field actions; ex situ conservation thanks to the French national Cryobank; methodological researches resulting in practical recommendations; development of genetic variability indicators and corresponding software. This study is an assessment of the in situ actions of conservation and management of genetic variability via the estimation of indicators, and an evaluation of the collections of the national Cryobanque with various criteria.Thanks to an assessment of the genetic variability based on the pedigrees of 69 ruminants breeds selected in France, we found four major factors explaining variation of the values of the indicators of genetic variability. They are: the rate of IA; the number of reproducing females; the genetic variability management systems; the existence of the introgression of foreign genes. These factors vary strongly depend on the industry considered: dairy cattle, dairy small ruminants, beef cattle, sheep and rare breeds.An evaluation of the Cryobank sampling strategies shows that, for dairy cattle, the sampling is efficient, but it could be improved by selecting the Cryobank candidates mostly on the least selected traits. For meat breeds, the sampling is less successful. The Cryobank candidates are restricted to AI males, which remain a minority of the breeding males. As for the reintroduction of cryoconserved material in selected populations, a simulation shows that it is effective only if carried on with a change in the selection objectives. For rare or less selected breeds, ex situ conservation turn out to be effective to preserve the breeds' genetic variability.Genetic variability indicators can be used more appropriately, thanks to our study. A follow up will be the VARUME project. The main goal of this project is to automate the genetic variability indicators, for all ruminant breeds with pedigrees. As for the French Cryobank, various projects, including VARUME and CRB-Anim, will allow a better valuation and optimization of its collections.
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Coralie Danchin-Burge. Gestion durable de la variabilité génétique des ruminants domestiques : approches in situ et ex situ. Génétique animale. AgroParisTech, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012AGPT0063⟩. ⟨tel-03603329⟩

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