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PROSPECTIVE ÉNERGÉTIQUE PACA ˸ Quelles transformations futures du territoire pour assurer une transition énergétique et d’économie circulaire ?

Abstract : Fighting global warming and reducing tensions over resource use requires drastic changes in how humanity interacts with the environment and how it should design and govern energy systems in the future, in other words, how to achieve sustainable systems. The implementation of this transition affects in particular sub-national territories where most of the production of waste and pollution are located, but also several resources whose use can contribute to the achievement of ambitious decarbonization and sustainability objectives. This places local territories as key players in this transition, so they are taken more into account in the definition of policies targeting the decarbonization of the energy system. In France, the implementation of the energy policy towards these territories has reached an important stage with the law relating to the Energy Transition for Green Growth of 2015 because it invites them to contribute to the decarbonization of the country by promoting the mobilization of local renewable energy resources by giving them the competences to do so. France is also considering moving to a circular economy, which aims to establish a more sustainable consumption and production system, by transforming waste into resources that will be reused in the economic system, thus minimizing the consumption of resources and the production of pollution. To propose solutions to all these challenges, the use of prospective modeling tools is decisive, as they can provide with answers to the various questions that emerge in the pursuit of sustainable and carbon neutral energy solutions. In this context, the objective of this work lies in the study of local energy systems, in particular of the French region SUD PACA and the available options that can ensure an energy and circular economy transition. First, the energy issues considered by energy modeling tools were discussed by showing how these models converged singularly towards the study of the energy transition both at the global and national level and, in particular, how these studies are increasingly applicable to the energy systems of sub-national territories. Then, we highlighted the growing role played by local authorities in defining and implementing energy-climate-environment policies, focusing in particular on the case of France. Despite the growing interest by governments, scientists and businesses in the concept of the circular economy as a strategy to deal with issues of resource depletion, a consensus is lacking on its principles, objectives and definition. To contribute to this, we propose a definition that integrates key aspects that have been mentioned in various studies concerning this concept. Finally, based on the TIMES SUD PACA prospective model that we have built, we show that local authorities are decisive in achieving national and international decarbonization objectives, through the mobilization of their resources and the adoption of ambitious decarbonization measures adapted to their economic and demographic context. To do so, the application of a circular economy perspective is essential, but it must be accompanied by a strategic allocation of their resources: for example, in the case of the SOUTH PACA region, targeting hydrogen for freight transport vehicles and for the production of synthesis gas, the latter then having to be allocated only to the industrial sector, or to prioritize heat recovery for the residential-tertiary sector.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, March 15, 2022 - 8:51:13 AM
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Carlos Andrade. PROSPECTIVE ÉNERGÉTIQUE PACA ˸ Quelles transformations futures du territoire pour assurer une transition énergétique et d’économie circulaire ?. Optimisation et contrôle [math.OC]. Université Paris sciences et lettres, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021UPSLM047⟩. ⟨tel-03608657⟩

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