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Multifonctionnalité de systèmes de culture combinés à des bandes fleuries : Une approche interdisciplinaire pour relier la biodiversité et les services écosystémiques rendus

Lola Seree 1 
Abstract : Agriculture's dependence on pesticides is struggling to be reduced and biodiversity in agricultural landscape continues to decline. Today's cropping systems need to move towards strengthening ecological processes in order to move towards agro-ecological management of crop health, which requires a deeper understanding of the regulation by predators and parasitoids, as well as their determinants. Furthermore, very little knowledge exists on the multifunctionality of field crop systems.The objectives of this thesis are to evaluate (i) how perennial flower strips inserted in contrasting cropping systems modify multitrophic communities, biological regulations, and the resulting ecosystem goods and services, and (ii) the multifunctionality of cropping systems supported by flower strips. To this end, a network of 31 farmers implementing organic, conservation tillage and conventional farming systems is being mobilised in the Paris basin. Within this network, we compared pairs of field crop plots with and without flower strips, and characterised biodiversity, biological regulation services on several crops, cultural service and agronomic and economic performance.Our results show first of all, that the effect of flower strips depends on the type of cropping system in which they are implemented and, on the taxon, considered. The regulation of oilseed rape pests is few affected by the presence of a flower strip but increases with the trophic resources provided by weeds in the plots.On faba bean, trophic resources at the edge of the field increased the abundance of hoverflies and green aphid mummies, but this did not translate into increased aphid regulation. Food web analysis suggests that birds are weakly connected to epigeous arthropods and do not predate on predators. Our results also indicate an important role for carabid beetles in the biological regulation of phytophagous insects.In a second step, a survey of citizens on the aesthetic and biodiversity perception of agricultural fields revealed a strong preference for cropping systems with the most soil cover and diverse vegetation, both cultivated and uncultivated. These systems are similar to those in conservation tillage.Finally, we assessed the multifunctionality of cropping systems in plots with and without flower strips. Cropping systems with high biodiversity use show a more balanced profile between the goods and services provided. Cropping systems with conservation tillage or high diversity are slightly less efficient in terms of yield and profits but are more efficient in terms of cultural services, and seem to be more favourable to biodiversity when associated with a flower strip.In conclusion, we show a complementarity between the presence of a flower strip and the different cropping systems in the provision of ecosystem goods and services. They suggest that biodiversity-based systems, in the field and its surroundings, strengthen the multifunctionality profile of cropping systems.
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Submitted on : Thursday, April 28, 2022 - 1:09:56 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-03654092, version 1

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Lola Seree. Multifonctionnalité de systèmes de culture combinés à des bandes fleuries : Une approche interdisciplinaire pour relier la biodiversité et les services écosystémiques rendus. Agronomie. Université Paris-Saclay, 2022. Français. ⟨NNT : 2022UPASB006⟩. ⟨tel-03654092⟩

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