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Les aéroports secondaires en France métropolitaine. Une approche territorialisée des trajectoires entre 1990 et 2016

Abstract : The French airport landscape can be hierarchically divided into three groups of airports: the Parisian airports of Roissy-Charles de Gaulle and Orly, the regional airports with up to several million annual passengers serving the main French regional cities, and a set of airports with a wide variety of traffic serving mainly medium-sized cities. The thesis focuses on this last category of airports, which we describe as secondary in reference to their hierarchical position. Between the 1960s and the end of the 1980s, these airports enabled the implementation of a national land-use planning policy, of which public financial support for air services was one of the tools. They have traditionally played a role in linking medium-sized towns with Paris and regions with each other, in the name of opening up and economic development. However, a number of developments since then have put this role into perspective and questioned its recomposition. The first major development concerns the liberalisation of European air transport between 1987 and 1997, which resulted in the opening up of the market to competition and a ban on aid paid to carriers and airports. In order to allow airports to better adapt to this liberalised framework, the French State organised the decentralisation of 150 airports in 2004. The local authorities that volunteered became owners of the airport infrastructure and responsible for the airport development strategy. The State has encouraged them to renew airport strategies and move towards cooperation between airports. Furthermore, the secondary airports are located in medium-sized towns which have themselves evolved and represent varied situations from a demographic and socio-economic point of view. Some have benefited from improved access times to Paris thanks to the development of high-speed rail. Thus, to answer the question of the evolution of the traditional role of secondary airports, we mobilise a territorialised approach which seeks to analyse the way in which territorial and economic actors have appropriated this infrastructure between 1990 and 2016. We hypothesise that the mobilisation of these territorial factors makes it possible to explain the varied trajectories of secondary airports and to understand the evolution of the airport's role for its territory.
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Joséphine Chevalier. Les aéroports secondaires en France métropolitaine. Une approche territorialisée des trajectoires entre 1990 et 2016. Géographie. École des Ponts ParisTech, 2022. Français. ⟨NNT : 2022ENPC0001⟩. ⟨tel-03657162⟩

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