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Le développement du salariat précaire dans l’agriculture française : une approche d’économie institutionnelle

Abstract : Data on the French agricultural sector suggest that the use of precarious employees is significant and a source of poor working conditions, low income and low institutional visibility for the employees concerned. This recourse is strongly supported by public policies, with a significant cost for public finances. This research aims to understand how this support can be explained despite the negative impacts on the employees concerned and the uncertain outcomes on the economic performance of farms. The contributions of several research programmes in institutional economics are mobilised, in particular those of the Theory of Regulation. This research work combines three complementary analyses: one of the forms of employment of these precarious employees in France, one of the public policies applied in this field and one of the evolution of the institutional mechanisms regulating employment in the sector. Several sources of quantitative and qualitative data are used. The results show the diversity of professional statuses of precarious employees and their quantitative importance: 57% of workers and 22% of working hours in the agricultural sector in 2016. Migrants represent only a minority of these workers. Public policies reinforce competition and social dumping between precarious workers in agricultural production, while only guaranteeing their social protection to a limited extent. They encourage employers to use these precarious workers via a system of exemptions from employers' contributions, which acts as a poverty trap. Three mechanisms help to explain the absence of an open crisis despite the tensions that are being expressed: the competition between employees with very heterogeneous professional statuses, which reduces their ability to control the supply of labour, the opacity maintained around these forms of employment and an institutional drift that prevents the updating of the forms of representation of these employees within pro fessional organisations.
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Submitted on : Saturday, June 18, 2022 - 6:31:56 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-03698463, version 1

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Axel Magnan. Le développement du salariat précaire dans l’agriculture française : une approche d’économie institutionnelle. Economies et finances. Université Paris-Saclay, 2022. Français. ⟨NNT : 2022UPASB020⟩. ⟨tel-03698463⟩

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