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Une biodiversité négociée : L’aménagement urbain au défi de la mise en œuvre de la séquence Éviter-Réduire-Compenser

Abstract : Introduced in France in 1976, the Avoid, Reduce and Compensate (ARC) sequence puts strong constraints on land development. This mechanism adds a step in the land development chain, involves intermediaries, and even partially transforms the development project. Moreover, ecological compensation has the particularity of being an in-kind compensation; as a result, it also has strong spatial impacts, particularly on local land use (within and outside the market). As a necessary element to the implementation of compensation, land is de facto held front and center as compensation sites are created, with new mid to long-term uses. This changes the local conditions for land development.This research looks at the application of the ARC sequence as a public policy device by analyzing the strategies and practices of field actors who deal with the constraints imposed by the standard.In order to study the transformations introduced by this normative constraint, the processual approach used focuses on three main stages : the construction of the norm itself (the “setting of rules”), its evolution as it is made operational through the establishment of equivalence agreements (the “setting of equivalence”) and its integration into the development and land market (the “setting of market”). These three stages each have an impact on the production of space and create a constraint on future development.The analysis of these processes reveals the gaps between the general objectives of the standard and its operational implementation, which tends to reduce and impoverish the biodiversity components taken into account. The thesis focuses on the negotiations and power relations that influence the operationalization of the system, and on the way the definition of biodiversity is reduced with every consecutive stage. These interpretations and adaptations are made necessary by the difficulties encountered by practitioners in applying the standard and in finding appropriate land for ecological compensation. Practitioners are confronted, in addition to the difficulty of understanding biodiversity, with the way some stakeholders (project owners, intermediaries, landowners) change their land tenure strategies.This study, which uses a qualitative methodology, is based on several empirical materials : a large exploratory fieldwork that made it possible to specify this research’s main question and hypotheses, interviews with project owners, intermediaries and government services, and a case study of two development projects in a medium-sized French city.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, June 21, 2022 - 4:28:11 PM
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Constance Berté. Une biodiversité négociée : L’aménagement urbain au défi de la mise en œuvre de la séquence Éviter-Réduire-Compenser. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. École des Ponts ParisTech, 2022. Français. ⟨NNT : 2022ENPC0008⟩. ⟨tel-03701108⟩

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