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Synthèse par ALD et caractérisation de couches extractrices d'électrons pour application dans les cellules solaires à base de pérovskite

Abstract : Perovskite solar cells have sparked a large interest in the photovoltaic community in the last 10 years due to their expedient optoelectrical properties, their vast scope of applications and their economical attractiveness.They are expected to reach the market by 2023, but challenges have to be tackled first, among which upscale and stability issues.To do so, a strategy is to work on the charge transport layers.They need to ensure a high selectivity towards one charge carrier, and have a good interface.Atomic layer deposition is an industrial deposition technique which allows for the synthesis of a large variety of materials.ALD layers are dense, homogeneous, conformal, pinhole-free and their thickness and composition can be controlled at the nano-scale.ALD hence appears as an ideal candidate to deposit the charge extraction layers.This thesis focuses on the development and on the characterization of various oxides by ALD.SnO2 and TiO2 have been developed at the Institut Photovoltaïque d'Île-de-France (IPVF) with two different processes for each material.Their properties in regard of an integration in perovskite solar cells as inorganic electron transport layers have been explored, and one process for each material has been chosen.The advantageous integration of a 15 nm-thick ALD-TiO2 layer has been demonstrated as compact blocking layer in a mesoporous architecture, and compared to a blocking layer deposited by spray pyrolysis.Similar power conversion efficiencies (PCE) up to 19% have been achieved, with a higher homogeneity of the ALD layer leading to a better reproducibility of the results now used in the baseline production at IPVF.The integration of ALD-SnO2 in planar structures is also discussed.The 10 nm-thick layer alone was found to give mediocre efficiencies due to a lack of fill factor.The addition of an organic interlayer solved this issue allowing for PCE up to 16%.Finally an analysis of the interface between ALD-ZnO modified by phosphonic acid derivatives and a perovskite absorber is proposed.The organization of the molecules at the surface of ZnO and their impact on the perovskite have been determined, but the performances of full devices are poor.
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Submitted on : Friday, July 15, 2022 - 3:35:25 PM
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Olivier Fournier. Synthèse par ALD et caractérisation de couches extractrices d'électrons pour application dans les cellules solaires à base de pérovskite. Matériaux. Université Paris sciences et lettres, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021UPSLC025⟩. ⟨tel-03724070⟩

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