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Developing a reformulation strategy to improve the nutritional and sensory quality of the food offer : A case study on chocolate chip cookies

Abstract : In many parts of Europe, over 10% of children aged 5-19 are now obese, with overweight affecting up to a third of the children in some countries. Food reformulation is one lever to move toward a healthier food offer and to improve children’s’ diet. However, it faced with many challenges implying to consider food reformulation as a holistic approach including composition, sensory, physicochemical, liking or behavior dimensions. In this context, the aim of this PhD work was to propose a multicriteria approach to develop healthier products for children, while maintaining or optimizing sensory perception, liking and behavior. We chose to focus on chocolate-chip cookies as a case study.The first step of this work concerns the study of the recipe diversity of commercial cookies in France to select a representative subset of products. Nutrition, composition, economic, water content, and sensory information were thus analyzed on the cookies of the French market. Then, sensory, physicochemical analyses and liking evaluation with children (n=151, aged 7-12 years old) were conducted on a reduced subset of products to identify key opportunities for reformulation.In a second step, sensory-led formulation of cookies was proposed, based on a mixture design including four key ingredients (sugar, fat, chocolate-chips, oat bran), combined with one process factor (baking degree). Thirty reformulated cookies were thus developed and characterized on multiple criteria, including in vitro glycemic index or evolution during oral processing (time in mouth before swallowing). As main result, this approach led to propose possible reduction of the kcal (-5.9%), sugar (-15.9%), fat (-24.7%), and chocolate-chip (-20%) per cookie and increase in oat bran (+49.3%), with also improvement of the calculated glycemic index (-8.2%) and the Rayner score (-8.7%). This work led thus to sensory modeling and recipe optimization for healthier products.In addition, children’s perception, satiation and satiety and liking (n=80, aged 10-12 years) were evaluated for four of these reformulated cookies. Keeping a high level of liking by children was confirmed. In addition, we highlighted that cookies’ texture plays a key role in reformulation for children and oat bran might be an interesting lever to increase biscuits’ viscosity and therefore food oral processing.Thus, this multicriteria food reformulation approach might reinforce food reformulation as a promising tool to improve the food quality for children.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, July 26, 2022 - 5:26:17 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-03738960, version 1

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Carole Liechti. Developing a reformulation strategy to improve the nutritional and sensory quality of the food offer : A case study on chocolate chip cookies. Chemical and Process Engineering. Université Paris-Saclay, 2022. English. ⟨NNT : 2022UPASB043⟩. ⟨tel-03738960⟩

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