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Accéder aux ressources en milieu aride, une affaire de réseaux ? Les stratégies d'investissement social des éleveurs camelins du sud-ouest marocain comme facteur d'adaptation aux changements socio-politiques et climatiques des espaces pastoraux

Abstract : The current dynamics within the pastoral areas in arid environments, such as the drastic decrease in terms of quality and quantity of pastoral resources, the advance of agricultural and urban fronts, and the implementation of pastoral laws aimed at securing pastoralism, have the consequence of questioning the systems of relations and agreements on which the social capital, mobilized by herders to access the pastoral and complementary resources necessary to maintain their herds, is based. The main challenge of our thesis is to understand how herders adapt their social capital to these transformations to secure their ability to access resources and preserve their herds in a context that tends to increase their vulnerability. While the approach of social capital as a determining factor in access to resources within pastoral societies is not a new subject of study, it continues to raise numerous theoretical and methodological questions in the human sciences. Based on a study of camel breeders in the province of Tan-Tan in southwest Morocco, our thesis proposes building a multidisciplinary analytical framework mobilizing geography (social, political, historical), socio-anthropology, and socio-economy. The aim is to develop a new approach to social capital that doesn't aim to measure a global stock of social capital, but rather to focus on the processes by which herders build, maintain, and develop it through the notion of social investment strategies developed by the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. The first chapter of results focuses on the evolution of tribal and state actor relations since the colonial period and their consequences on the social networks from which the herders construct and maintain their social investment strategies. The second chapter of results presents the method we have developed to establish a typology of herder profiles according to these different social strategies in interaction with the other forms of assets they o wn. The study of the adaptive capacities of different herder profiles during the drought and the health crisis linked to the COVID-19 pandemic that affected the province of Tan-Tan during our study period allows us to demonstrate that the herders who were best able to access pastoral and complementary resources are those who adapted to political and social changes by developing social investment strategies that straddle the customary and state networks or by relying on financial capital and significant social prestige. Between research and development, this thesis is an invitation to place at the heart of the analysis of the resilience of pastoral populations the study of the social investment strategies implemented by herders insofar as they constitute a determining factor in their capacity to access the resources necessary to maintain their herds and consequently their capacity to adapt to the changes that characterize pastoral areas in arid environments. It also emphasizes the ne ed for pastoral development projects and policies to take greater account of the multiple territories and sets of stakeholders within which pastoral areas are located and from which herders develop their social strategies for accessing resources. It is only by taking this into account and highlighting the existing disparities in terms of capacity to access resources within the pastoral community concerned that pastoral development will be able to benefit the majority of herders and not just those with “good” networks.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, September 6, 2022 - 11:31:07 AM
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Lina Amsidder. Accéder aux ressources en milieu aride, une affaire de réseaux ? Les stratégies d'investissement social des éleveurs camelins du sud-ouest marocain comme facteur d'adaptation aux changements socio-politiques et climatiques des espaces pastoraux. Géographie. AgroParisTech, 2022. Français. ⟨NNT : 2022AGPT0007⟩. ⟨tel-03770223⟩

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