Sources, transfert et devenir des alkylphénols et du bisphénol A dans le bassin amont de la Seine : cas de la région Île-de-France

Abstract : This thesis focuses on occurrence and fate of seven alkylphenols and bisphenol A (BPA) on a basin divided into a heavily urbanized part and a second part which underscore intense agricultural activities : the Seine River basin (Île-de-France Region). This study was divided into four different approaches. The first approach consists in studying the contamination of urban sources. To this end, the effluents of the five biggest wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) of the IDF Region, combined sewer overflows (CSO), urban runoff and total atmospheric fallouts were considered. This study highlight that BPA mainly occurs in wet-weather urban sources (CSO and urban runoff) while WWTP effluents are dominated by the nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP1EC) which is a 4 nonylphenol (4 NP) precursor. The 4-NP was found in all investigated urban sources at level close to a hundred of nanogram per liter (ng.l-1). The second approach focuses on the assessment of contamination of natural matrices such as receiving surface water and soils at different scales. The first scale is the study of the Orgeval River basin which is representative of basins unpolluted by urban activities, while the second scale accounts the entire IDF region including the Parisian Metropolitan area. These two scales revealed the large spread of 4-NP to all investigated natural matrices within the Seine River basin. At the scale of the IDF Region, the influence of the Parisian Metropolitan Area was demonstrated on NP1EC and BPA concentrations within the Seine River. On a third step, the biodegradability of nonylphenolic compounds was investigated according to an innovative approach. The biodegradation rates were determined directly within the Seine River according to the ProSe model (Centre de Géoscience, école des Mines ParisTech) and specific sampling campaigns performed on the Seine River. The biodegradation rates found during this study disclosed high variabilities according to biological conditions of the Seine River. Actually, after an algal bloom, the biodegradation rates were found between 10 and 35 times higher than those established under common biological conditions. At last, the fluxes exported by the Seine River, at annually scale, were compared to those emitted by all investigated urban sources. At the scale of year 2010, fluxes of 4-NP and BPA emitted by all investigated urban sources are not predominant compared with those exported by the Seine River at the outlet of the Parisian Metropolitan Area. This result confirms the large spread of 4-NP and BPA at the scale of the entire IDF Region likely due to their important uses since the 1960's. This result also raises some questions about the origins of such fluxes found in Seine River and about the contamination of the upstream part.This thesis was performed within the framework of the PIREN-Seine and OPUR (Observatoire des Polluants URbains) research programs
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Mathieu Cladière. Sources, transfert et devenir des alkylphénols et du bisphénol A dans le bassin amont de la Seine : cas de la région Île-de-France. Sciences de la Terre. Université Paris-Est, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PEST1118⟩. ⟨tel-00816845v2⟩

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