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Le parc public au Japon : une forme paysagère hybride -Les apports de l’école française de paysage-

Abstract : Subsequent to the 1868 Meiji revolution, the opening of the country was a time of great change in urban planning and in the art of the garden in Japan. Under influences from the West, the layout of towns and the model of the Japanese garden were both diversified and this development was reinforced and accelerated by a new element in the urban space, introduced from abroad, the « public park ».Two schools of landscaping were pioneers in this trend: the Seiroku Honda school, established at the Imperial University in Tokyo, and the Hayato Fukuba school based in the Shinjuku Gyoen Imperial Garden. The two founders did not share the same philosophy of landscaping: the former was founded on forestry and on town and country planning, inspired by theories developed in Germany, and the latter was based on examples of horticulture and garden design from France: the treatise by Edouard André, “General Treatise on the Composition of Parks and Gardens” (Traité général de la composition des parcs et jardins), published in 1879, in particular, exerted a clear influence.In the present thesis, I will defend the hypothesis that a new type of space appeared: the public park, evolving from the principle achievements of the two schools during the opening up of the country in 1868 and until the 1930s. Using the “comparatist” method, I retrace the traditions of garden design in Japan and in France informed by the study of projects for public parks and gardens in France during the Second Empire, where the French school of landscaping flourished (Parc des Buttes-Chaumont, Parc Montsouris, Square des Batignolles), and I analyse the characteristics of the parks and gardens laid out by the two pioneer landscape gardeners and their followers (Shinjuku Gyoen, Hibiya Park, Hamachô Park, Narita-san Park). I also research the training for landscape gardening and the formats used for transfer of knowledge among horticulturalists.My research covers both historical and practical aspects. I use the methods of the historian for the consultation of archives and for documentary research; the methods of a landscape gardener for the techniques of surveying and the interpretation of projects. Analysing both French and Japanese parks from various thematic standpoints (paths, planting, water features, project management and layout), I demonstrate the influence of the French school of landscaping on the development of the public park in Japan. I reserve an important place to iconography and to graphics analysis, often hitherto unpublished. Finally, my thesis presents new elements concerning the effects in Japan, in this largely unexplored domain, of the art of gardening in its relation to the public park
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Submitted on : Tuesday, February 23, 2021 - 2:45:28 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-03150053, version 1

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Yoko Mizuma. Le parc public au Japon : une forme paysagère hybride -Les apports de l’école française de paysage-. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. Institut agronomique, vétérinaire et forestier de France, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017IAVF0019⟩. ⟨tel-03150053⟩

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