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Theses

Contributions à une approche patrimoniale de la voie ferrée de tramway

Abstract : In France, after the most of the tram systems were dismantled between 1950 and 1960, a new generation emerged, starting in 1985 (Nantes), and subsequently rolled out in many cities (Grenoble, Paris, Rouen, Strasbourg, Orléans, Montpellier, Lyon...). Today, although other tramline projects are under consideration, the implementation of new tramlines is in decline. The oldest segments of tramlines are reaching the end of their life span and infrastructure owners are now thinking about renewing their networks and in particular the track infrastructures. Because the tram mode is highly urban, if a line is located in a transport corridor, operators face considerable costs to keep transport running. While tramlines are in principle long lasting and low maintenance, track renewal has its downsides: it is costly and tricky to carry out in urban conditions.This makes tramline renewal an important topic of asset management for the equipped cities, their transit agencies and network operators. It is good practice to anticipate the needs for renewal all along the tram network, by monitoring the actual physical state of rail wear and identifying the sections for which mediumterm maintenance actions […] is no longer appropriate and must give way to long-term maintenance […].The context of tramline infrastructure can be likened to functionally homogeneous structures with different compositions in nature and assembly, often dependant on contextual situations. Infrastructures are not immutable: the stock inevitably deteriorates as a result of ageing, while maintenance is limited and renewal is costly and restrictive. Infrastructure management is based on visual inspections and expert judgment in planning maintenance and renewal decisions. In practice, the decision-making process is still in its infancy: expertise is disparate and not very formalized; feedback is limited; statistical practice is insufficient; and renewal management is not subject to a systematic methodology.The thesis contributes to the development of asset management for tramlines, by formulizing the main technical and managerial issues for a long-term approach. To this end, it mobilizes tools from various disciplines: systemic analysis, technical approach, managerial approach, statistical analysis and socioeconomic evaluation. Through a systemic analysis, we characterize the system and its conditions of evolution. We present in a structured way the composition of the technical system in its complexity. We make a global diagnosis of the problem posed by its ageing. The result is an identification of the important factors of the physico-chemical mechanisms caused by ageing of the track, the associated risks and mitigation techniques.We then developed a method for the diagnosis of tram track condition, identifying main factors and translating them into a family of technical criterias. The field inspection of these criterias provides input for our geographic information system whose objective is to standardize and improve the data inventory in time and space on the physical condition of track elements. The reiteration of the diagnosis makes it possible to forecast renewal needs, section by section. We also contribute to the anticipation of tramline- viii - renewal needs by providing analytical methods based on empirical data from two trams lines in the French city of Grenoble. It brings about an analysis of the technical lifetimes of track elements and, a method to forecast renewal needs and integrate them in a long-term schedule of budget expenditure. We situate the associated costs in a cost-benefit analysis for different kinds of renewal tactics. This last methodological contribution provides clear indications concerning both the influence of geometry on ownership costs and the impact of the work procedure on renewal cost in an urban environment.The final results provide food for thought both for the design of a new tramline and for the choice of the renewal tactic.
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Submitted on : Monday, July 19, 2021 - 5:30:10 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, July 20, 2021 - 3:58:40 AM

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Xavier Morize. Contributions à une approche patrimoniale de la voie ferrée de tramway. Infrastructures de transport. Université Paris-Est, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020PESC1018⟩. ⟨tel-03291396⟩

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